Openness without penalty

Note: On Monday, September 26, 2016, I gave a talk at Middlebury College. Below is the working transcript I wrote for the talk, though I did not actually read it. The talk can be viewed online.

Today I’m going to focus on my journey as both a college instructor as well as administrator over a project we have at the University of Oklahoma where give students, faculty, and staff a modern space to build on the open web and what it’s done for my courses as well as my community.

But before I get there I want to pose and explore some broader questions. How do we choose the technologies we choose for our courses? Why do we choose the technologies we choose? What do these choices say about who we are and what we believe? How can we learn more about who we are through these choices?

You see, I believe that to discuss education technology you need to first contextualize these situations, as not all technologies are suited for every situation. In fact, I would go further and say that not every technology is congruent with every teaching philosophy. As an instructor I’m not a neutral entity; I teach my subjects the way I want to teach them. Similarly, technologies are not neutral as they, too, have biases that have been implicitly or explicitly built into them and their uses.

I’d like to unpack these ideas of teaching philosophies and the neutrality of technology a bit, but first, I’d like to take the moment to out myself. Purely by discipline, I’m far from a humanist. I teach Advertising and Public Relations courses in Gaylord College of Journalism and Mass Communications; our area is called Strategic Communications. Ad and PR, while certainly can be studied, is much more a profession than it is a discipline. We pull from business, marketing, communications, human relations, art, visual communications and we package and sell these disciplines in such a way that it’s really complicated to understand your return on your investment, much to our benefit. Yes, we are in the journalism school, but, as my newspaper writin’ college roommate would tell me as often as he could, “You ad guys are not journalists.”

So, here I am, saying something similar, “Us ad guys are not humanists.” When I was in grad school (my graduate work is in Learning Technologies) I did what a good grad student does in that wrote a personal mission statement and a teaching philosophy which has been stuck on my syllabus for the past four years that I’ve been teaching, and it wasn’t until very recently, as I reflected on how I taught, that, by golly, there might be an outside chance that my teaching style is actually very humanist.

Now, if you are curious as to where you might fit in, here is a list of teaching philosophies as described by Elias and Merriam (1980) and later adapted by Zinn (1990).

Zinn used this framework to ask questions about how decisions in the classroom are made. Zinn says that when one engages in the practice of education, certain beliefs about life are applied to the practice, and these constitute as a philosophy in education.

Personally, I have reverence for all of these philosophies, but I fall squarely into the category described here as a humanist. I structure my course around not just mastering content but enhancing personal growth and development.

Further, most research around the Internet has focused on one of these three areas: uses (or the artifact generated via technology), technological (with a focus on the technology itself), and social (the outcomes of the technology) (Dahlberg 2004).

What’s interesting is that you can begin to lay these philosophies — teaching and technology — over one another, as was done by Heather Kanuka (2008).

Technologies can, under certain circumstances… provide flexibility, convenience, and meet individual student needs… Specifically, uses of technology can play a critical role in providing flexible and open access to the growing needs of individual students… For humanists, learning is view as a highly personal endeavor, and, as such, self-concept, self-perception, intrinsic motivation, self-evaluation, and discovery are important to learning and thinking skills.
— Heather Kanuka

So I want to look look closer at this idea of how one can attempt to leverage technology to facilitate this idea of self-actualization, or at least how I’ve tried to attack it myself. As I mentioned I teach ad and public relations, and I specifically teach design-oriented courses. My students are, for the most part, not designers. In fact, I would say they are quite anxious about this course either because they don’t consider themselves creative, or they consider themselves computer illiterate, or maybe it’s just because they aren’t familiar with an assessment methodology beyond quizzes, test, and essays. So needless to say they are out of their comfort zone. And so I’ve adopted an overarching goal for my course which is that I want every student to be able to see that they are, indeed a creative human being. I’m really passionate about creativity. And I believe this strategy can easily be applied to other disciplines. You are passionate about chemistry, and you want your students to see that chemistry is approachable, or math is approachable, or writing is approachable.

In 2013, I watched a presentation by Jim Groom about a project that was taking place at the University of Mary Washington called a Domain’s of One Own in which they they were affording all students at the institution a domain to build out a digital identity and use the space to reflect on their learning experience. This use case, and particularly the philosophy behind giving students a space of their own (inspired by the famous essay A Room of One’s Own by Virginia Woolf) really resonated with me and what I was attempting to do with my students. Jim had similar goals for his students in a Digital Storytelling course (DS106 #4life), and it felt good to come across a technology that really resonated with my teaching philosophy.

As I spent the last summer redesigning a course that I was to teach this fall, I looked at several of them to better understand creativity. What are the building blocks of the creative process? How can I build a classroom environment that is conducive to creativity? There are lots of theories out there about creativity itself (pro tip: if you want a have a book on NY Times Best Sellers list, write one). But one interesting idea that has come up several times throughout writing on creativity is is the notion that the creative art process is specifically related to the process of self-actualization. And you can break this process down into a four-part process (Rogers 1961, Linderman and Herberholz 1977, Ross 1980, Rider 1987).

I want to walk through this process and showing how I’ve built this into my courses.


This first phase of self-actualization through creativity is awareness and it involves being open to new thoughts and experiences. In my class, this is the domain itself. Each student has a domain in which much of the work will take place, outside of the walls of the password-protected learning management system. Having a public, academic identity is foreign territory for the majority of my students. And as an instructor I have to, first, acknowledge this, and, second, tread lightly here. I want to encourage students to take ownership of their space, to personalize their space, to allow their space to reflect who they are. In many ways, this is an analogy for what I’m hoping for with the course. I want them to take ownership of their own creativity and becomes agents of their learning. Own your self; own your work.

Hello World

The interesting thing about domains is that they begin amorphous. It’s loosely defined by the technology but only really take shape once a student has spent a considerable amount of time inside of it, and you have to learn to become comfortable with things not looking or feeling right at the beginning. Carl Rogers says this is necessary for creativity. One has to have “a tolerance for ambiguity where ambiguity exists.”

How do our technologies lend themselves to ambiguity? How flexible or rigid are they? Can you begin to see how technologies limit the ways in which we are allowed to use them? How flexible or rigid are we as instructors of courses? How much should we be?

Is it even possible to support students in an environment of ambiguity? Here are a couple strategies that I’ve taken in assisting in this environment. First, understand that these take time to mature. Build in ways for students to work on pieces of their domain throughout the semester. If you are going to assign a portfolio project, do so at the beginning of the semester rather than the end have them do small pieces of it over time. In fact, I would recommend focusing on the technology itself as little as possible when students get in it. If you let it, web technology can seem very overwhelming and a lot of that is due to the flexibility. I want students to know how to create basic content and how to customize the look and feel for when they feel ready to customize the space.

The beginnings of a student space

Second, I want them to be exposed to the work of other students. One of the best benefits of the open web is its ability to be networked.

Student Work Syndication

I manage a WordPress syndication hub which allows students to see each others work. Remember how I said students are overly anxious coming into the course? It helps to know you aren’t the only. It also helps to see how a student responded to a specific problem or simply get inspiration from viewing a peer’s space.

Language exists only when it is listened to as well as spoken. The hearer is an indispensable partner. The work of art is completely only as it works in the experience of others than the one who created it.
— John Dewey

One of my favorite things to see in my classroom is when a student asks someone else in class “How did you do that?” and that students gets the opportunity to teach them how they uploaded their photo or added a Twitter widget or the like.

My last recommendation, and this is in my mind the most important of the three, is really, truly evaluate your assessment strategy. The more you set requirements on your student’s domain and the more you restrict how it can be used, the more it will reflect you and the less it will reflect them. This freedom, this openness, can be described as the cornerstone of the creativity.

If there be no self-expression, no free play of individuality, the product will of necessity be but an instance of a species; it will lack the freshness and originality found only in things that are individual on their own account.
— John Dewey

Selection and Reflection

The second phase of the creative process involves both selection and reflection. And these two go hand-and-hand because allowing students to earn freedom through choice allows them to additionally have the opportunity to critically evaluate on an internal level the choice they made.

I’ve taken multiple strategies towards this idea. The first is fairly easy in that almost all of my design projects allow them to decide who they are designing for. Students are allowed to choose the company or organization and I encourage them to choose one they are highly familiar with like a student organization or I tell them to pick a company from the Fortune 500 list or something similar. I give them some restrictions such as the medium for which they are designing and that it includes various components but, ultimately, how they complete it is up to them. Nothing beats a good, old fashion open-ended problem. This also allows the students to have a design portfolio that doesn’t just show they technical skill but gives them space to show how they problem solve.

This semester I’ve taken that a step further and now let them even choose the assignments they want to complete through an assignment bank (developed by Alan Levine and available on Github).

This is an assignment where students learn Adobe Photoshop through designing a title card similar to the aesthetic of the Netflix series, Stranger Things. Students write a reflection on the assignment on their own blog and then the work is syndicated back to the challenge bank so students can see how other students completed the challenge. Selection. Reflection. Awareness. Openness.

Working Process

The third stage is the working process. Because I’ve already created a level of freedom in how one can complete the project, they can approach it in a way that is matches their unique idea. And because of the networked approach of the course, it allows them multiple venues for feedback. Both myself and my peers comment on student work at various moments across a project.


The final stage of the creative process is the creation itself. The creation itself is critical to self-actualization and to get from creative work (and, its worth stressing, creative work is not limited to actual art) you need to know how you got there. My favorite part of the semester is towards the end. Because students now have this collection of reflections on their learning throughout the semester, I have them spend some time reading their blogs chronologically. Through reading their reflections, I ask them to put together a narrative of their learning process with a final assignment being to design a Summary of Learning. These have taken on several different forms over the years.

OU Create

I been fortunate enough at the University of Oklahoma that having this type of space is now being supported through our Provost’s Office much like MiddCreate. Ours is affectionately similarly named: OU Create. And since 2014, we’ve had more than 3,200 students, faculty, and staff sign up for space on OU Create.

At the time, we were looking to do more of the type of work that I was doing in my course across the institution. Students in courses leveraging domains as a way of publicly narrating their learning while building a portfolio of work in a way in which they can better understand their learning journey.

I have to be honest — it’s a really good thesis. It’s a great plan. I’ve got the right rearchers to back up that this works. And I would love it if every student at the University of Oklahoma left with a portfolio/journal/whatever similar to this. I believe in the power of it.

But what’s even better is that now that we have offered this infrastructure to the entire community, it’s being used in ways I could have never imagined. Some of the use cases don’t involve blogging or WordPress at ALL (everything I personally do relies on that!). These ideas include undergraduate research projects, study abroad blogs, digital lab notebooks, digital library exhibits, student-run news magazines, faculty research groups, business prototypes, student election sites, and faculty learning communities.

And these are mostly just institutional types of projects. The last project I want to show you is a secondary space from a student. And I wanted to make sure you heard about this project directly from him.

I want to make a couple closing points here about what these spaces add for our communities. First, this kind of project doesn’t happen if we had simply gone with a single e-portfolio solution or a single tool in our learning management system. We had to give flexibility and with that we had to trust our community to do this kind of stuff with their space. No one asked Keegan to do any of this, but this is how it’s became his space and how it reflects him. Second, what Keegan says is bold. He’s talking first about how uncomfortable he was in this space, how it took him time to find comfort, and now how he is opening up about his family and using his domain as a tool for healing. That’s vulnerability. And that’s realness.

I feel a sense of satisfaction when I can dare to communicate the realness in me to another. Then I feel genuine and spontaneous and alive.
— Carl Rogers

That’s the philosophy I want to have. I unabashedly want our students to ooze realness. In whatever form that ends up in. That’s my teaching philosophy: oozing realness. And to bring us full circle: it’s matters. You’re teaching philosophy matters a lot. It’s matters in the technology we choose.

Image credits: flickr photo by cogdogblog shared under a Creative Commons (BY) license

Privacy on the Web

“Almost all arguments about student privacy, whether those calling for more restrictions or fewer, fail to give students themselves a voice, let alone some assistance in deciding what to share online.”

Hack Education author Audrey Watters highlights an issue that everyone using technology in the classroom or to share their work online has to grapple with. When we think about it abstractly, it’s easy to recognize that privacy is very important. But when it comes to online spaces, privacy is sometimes unwittingly sacrificed or overlooked. In educational settings, it’s not always explored fully in a way that engages students, listens to their concerns, and informs them of their rights. We are all responsible for protecting our own privacy. This post is intended to explore the topic more deeply and give some guidance that will hopefully help you decide the boundaries of what you are comfortable with sharing.


The distinctions between public and private spaces are often blurred on the web. The nature of how websites are constructed means that privacy settings can add multiple layers of security that hide or show different things to different people. On a more personal level, how can we use privacy settings to enhance our work? It might be helpful to reframe this distinction as “thought space” vs “public space”. We can use privacy features to help us draft our ideas in a contained environment just for ourselves and our collaborators, before sending them out into the public arena where they will interact with the opinions of the greater world.

thought-1014406_960_720Before sharing anything on the web, think about whether it’s something you would mind sharing in real life. Consider carefully before revealing identifying information, like usernames, passwords, your real name, addresses, and phone numbers. Someone could use even a small piece of information like this to find more about you via a reverse search. If you want to keep your personal information from being entered into public, searchable record (i.e. general web search results), you may want to avoid filling out forms that require those details or posting them anywhere online.

SITES dot and MiddCreate Domains

Middlebury hosts two WordPress based platforms, SITES dot MIIS and SITES dot Middlebury, which are available for you to create content on. MiddCreate provides our community members with an entire domain of their own, and is hosted through Reclaim Hosting, a company that offers a strict privacy policy. It was reviewed and approved as our vendor by the Information and Technology Services group (ITS) at Middlebury. Reclaim Hosting doesn’t make any intellectual property claims about what you host on your MiddCreate domain (unless you post something they created or wrote).

Some people may wonder how the US Department of Education’s Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) is implicated in projects like these. FERPA only requires that student records not be public unless a student gives permission, so ultimately you have control of how much information is made available.

What this means is that anything you make on SITES dot MIIS, SITES dot Middlebury, or MiddCreate can only be made public with your permission or by your own choice. You have full agency to control the level of privacy you want to set for your websites. If you’re creating something for a class assignment, you will probably have to find a way to allow your professor to access it for grading purposes. However, an instructor cannot force you to use identifying personal information or share your content without your consent.

WordPress Privacy Settings

WordPress powers not only SITES dot MIIS and SITES dot Middlebury, but is also one of the most popular applications on MiddCreate. Almost 26% of sites on the internet use WordPress, so it’s very useful to familiarize yourself with the privacy options it offers. It’s important to understand what these option mean and how your site will be affected by any changes you make.

Content Visibility

When you create a post you can save it as a draft instead of publishing it right away. Drafts are only be visible to people who have login access to the Dashboard of your WordPress site. Once you publish a post or page, you can customize its visibility under the “Publish” sidebar in the editor. You have three visibility options:
  • Public – The page will be visible to everyone.
  • Protected – The page is protected with a password you set. WordPress will prompt you for the password on your initial visit to a protected page, and only people who have the password can view a protected page. You can password protect post-by-post, or entire areas of your site by using a plugin.
  • Private – Pages are only visible to Editors and Administrators*. Private pages are not visible in the Reader, feeds, or in any search. A page can be private without being password protected.

* Learn more about WordPress user roles and permissions in this resource from WP Beginner.

Private Site

If you’d like to make your entire website private, you’ll need to adjust your general privacy settings. They can be found under Settings > General on the left-hand sidebar in the Dashboard.

Search Engine Visibility Options

You can also choose whether you want your site to show up in search engine results. In WordPress, these options can be found under Settings > Reading > Search Engine Visibility.
  • Allow search engines to index this site. – This is the setting used by most blogs. It allows everyone to read your site and enables it to be included in search engine results and other content sites.
  • Ask search engines not to index this site. – If you want all human visitors to be able to read your blog, but want to block web crawlers for search engines, this is the setting for you.

** Please note that these options cannot force search engines to not search your site at all.

Knowing how to manage your identity and information online is a critical part of developing digital literacy. Whether on social media, as part of your academic work, or in your everyday web browsing, privacy is something we all have to think carefully about in order to discover what our comfort level is and how much we are willing to share with the world. You have the right to choose what amount of engagement is most appropriate for you, and protect yourself and your information accordingly.

I hope this article has provided a useful framework for thinking about privacy, but if you have any further concerns or questions, feel free to drop by the DLC for more advice!

Additional Resources

Want to take control of what people find about you online? Check out our web presence resources.

Concerned about malware/spyware and fending off invasive hacks? Learn more about web security.

MiddCreate Conversations: Openness Without Penalty

What have you heard about MiddCreate? Want to learn more about the possibilities it opens up? How will it change our relationship to the web?

Join us for a live viewing of a presentation by Adam Croom, Director of Digital Leaning at the University of Oklahoma, entitled “Openness Without Penalty: The Cornerstone of the Creative Student/Classroom/University”.  He will be sharing his views on the importance and possibilities of “Domain of One’s Own” initiatives like the newly launched MiddCreate.

Be sure to stay for a post-talk discussion on how web domains can help all members of the Middlebury community expand their digital presence, fluency and agency.

Event Information

Place: This will be held in the Learning Lab of the DLC. The Learning Lab is in McGowan, the room with the big central table, the recording booths, and the dock of computers against the wall.

Date: Monday, September 26, 2016

Time: 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM

What: A viewing and discussion of Adam Croom’s presentation, live streamed from Middlebury College. The talk will focus on how MiddCreate can enhance learning, encourage digital literacy and creativity in our community.

We hope you’ll join us!

Want to know more about Domain of One’s Own? Check out these recent articles:

Announcing MiddCreate

It’s official! MiddCreate is live!

What is MiddCreate, you ask?

MiddCreate allows Middlebury students, faculty, and staff to create a personal web subdomain. In that web space, users can design and create spaces of almost unlimited possibilities, including installing various applications and content management systems, setting up subdomains, and installing databases. In addition, users may choose to “map” their domain (or a subdomain) to other services. You can read more about the possibilities of MiddCreate and differences between it and our hosted blog environments on our blog.

To explore examples of MiddCreate tools, check out this site created by Clarissa Stewart, DLC/MiddCreate intern, and this site created by Evelyn Helminen, Assistant Director of the DLC.

How to get started with MiddCreate

To get started with your own MiddCreate site, go to Click “Dashboard,” which will take you to a sign-on page, give you the opportunity to choose/register your subdomain name, and allow you to access your own personal cPanel. (Note to people at MIIS: the email you should use is your and regular email password.) If you would like step-by-step guidance on how to utilize the cPanel, install applications, and more, see our support documentation.

If you create a site that you are excited to share, please email us for inclusion in the “Featured MiddCreate Spaces” on the main website. We encourage everyone to explore how this environment can be used to share, collaborate on, and discuss our academic and professional work across Middlebury and beyond! Faculty, if you want to talk with the Office of Digital Learning about how you or your class might use MiddCreate, email us at
Want to read more about Domain of One’s Own? Give these recent articles a try:
During this academic year, we will welcome speakers who will discuss the importance and possibilities of “Domain of One’s Own” initiatives like MiddCreate. We are pleased to announce the first two speakers, who will join us this fall to share their views:

“Openness without penalty: The cornerstone of the creative student/classroom/university”
Adam Croom, director of digital learning, University of Oklahoma

Monday, September 26 at 4pm ET / 1pm PT
Library 105 & streaming to Middlebury Institute for International Studies at Monterey (details will be sent closer to the date)

“Attending to the Digital / Reclaiming the Web”
Audrey Watters, education writer and rabble rouser, Hack Education

Friday, October 21st at 1:30pm ET / 10:30am PT
Van Buren 499, will be streamed to Middlebury College
Workshops on MiddCreate will follow Audrey’s talk on the MIIS and Middlebury campuses

Image by maf04, CC BY-SA 2.0

Creating an E-Portfolio

Creating an e-portfolio is a great way to showcase your past and present work, as well as build your professional web presence. You may wonder why you should bother putting your information in an online portfolio. For one, résumés are boring. No pictures, no videos, no flair, and very little personality. On a website, you can link to work samples and presentations, easily link to your LinkedIn profile, and imbue the site with your personality. Moreover, it shows potential employers and connections that you are technically savvy, which is important in the 21st century economy.

In addition, résumés are static. As soon as you give someone your résumé, they forever have that version of it. However, if you include your personal site’s URL on your résumé or business card, your connections will have access to a dynamic, up-to-date (hopefully!) source of information.

Finally, a personal website is searchable. An important part of building web presence is controlling what results people find when they Google your name, and so your site provides a lot of relevant context that will be indexed with your name.

Ready to get started? This resource will guide you through the process and give you some tips for creating a basic e-portfolio.

Step 1: Choose Your Platform

Check out this great resource to learn more about the differences between some of the website building platforms available to students and how to choose the one that’s right for you. Keep in mind that there are many more platforms than what’s listed here, like Strikingly for example, which lets you create a simple one-page website.

Ideally, you will continue to use your site long after you leave school, so make sure you consider your exit strategy. If you choose a platform hosted by Middlebury or if you ever want to switch platforms as your site grows, what migration options or ways to export your site will be available to you? Thinking about this from the beginning may help you avoid unpleasant surprises and frustration in the future.

website builder comparison chart

Step 2: Select a Design

Depending on the platform you’ve chosen, one of the most important decisions will be choosing a theme. This will determine the look and to some degree, functionality of your site. Consider your personal brand: what do you want your site to visually communicate about you?

Changing themes will often change the formatting, so make sure you choose one you like because switching after creating lots of content sometimes requires a lot of tedious reconfiguring. It might be helpful to look at examples of e-portfolios, think of a potential vision first, then browse and test different themes until you find one you like.

Step 3: Add Your Content

Once you’ve found a home and a design for your portfolio, it’s time to consider what to include on it. I recommend creating the following basic sections:

About Me

This is a chance to express who you are as a person, share a little about your unique life experiences, and communicate your career goals. You could approach it as a cross between a short bio and a cover letter for your dream job position.

Résumé or CV

There are lots of ways to include the information on your traditional résumé. You could manually type it in, but this may restrict your text formatting. Another option is to take a large, clear screenshot of the document, then upload it as an image. You might also want to link the image to a downloadable PDF version of the document. You could also embrace the digital nature of the medium to visualize your skills in a completely new way, using interactive graphics.

Remember, the information on your e-portfolio will be publicly viewable on the internet so take the same safety measures to guard your privacy as you would anywhere else online. You may want to remove personal information such as your phone number, address, email, etc. from the résumé you post on your e-portfolio.

If you have a LinkedIn account, this is a good place to put a link or button to your profile. You can do this by embedding HTML code, linking a button image, or get a fancier profile preview via their plugin generator.

Project Showcase

Use this section to highlight your relevant coursework, projects, internships, research, or volunteer experiences. Be creative! Use video, photo galleries, slideshows, or upload audio to diversify the way you present your achievements to the world.


Make sure visitors have a way to get in contact with you, whether this takes the form of providing links to social media, your email address, or creating a contact form.

Show Off Your Specialized Skills

If you’re a translation or interpretation specialist, you could create your portfolio in multiple languages. Looking to start a career in international education management, trade, or development? Make a section that elaborates on your range of experiences abroad or the certifications you’ve received in your field.

Want more advice or one-on-one help getting started?

If you have any questions, feel free to come in to the DLC or make an appointment. We’ll be happy to help!

Additional Resources

Bringing digital humanities tools to your classroom

Recently, I had the privilege to present with Dr. Florence Feiereisen (Department of German) at the CTLR Writing and Teaching Retreat. We talked about digital tools that faculty can use in their classes to help students develop skills with those tools, and to help increase their sophistication with creative work and collaboration. Florence talked her Acoustic Ecology course, in which students created audio soundscapes to explore “the social, cultural, scientific, and ecological aspects of the sonic environment.” Assignments like this encourage students to develop their understanding of digital tools (beyond the tools they often uncritically use on a day-to-day basis) and give students a chance to exercise agency in their creative and scholarly work.

I briefly introduced five tools: WordPress, Omeka, Scalar, Voyant Tools, and Most of the tools are available on MiddCreate and can be installed easily on faculty or students’ personal domains. Take a look at our slide deck (click the title slide below) to view descriptions and examples of each tool, along with links to example sites.

Learn more about each of the tools:

WordPress: Web publishing platform well suited for blogging and websites 
Omeka: Web publishing platform focused on collections, such as library and museum collections
Scalar: Rich, multimedia publishing that includes data and analysis layers, such as visualizations and annotations 
Voyant Tools: Text/corpus analysis tools, including visualizations, frequency charts, etc. Web annotation tool that allows individual/private, group-based, and public annotation 

(Hat tip to Clarissa Stewart and Evelyn Helminen from the Digital Learning Commons in Monterey for finding several of these examples)

Want to learn more about MiddCreate and/or to explore tools on MiddCreate that you or your students can use? Contact the Office of Digital Learning,

Featured image for this post is a screenshot from My Dear Little Nelly project by David McClure | Map tiles by Stamen Design, under CC BY 3.0. Data by OpenStreetMap, under CC BY SA. | Maps from the Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia.